The other special circumstance you may be faced with is being grabbed by an assailant before you have a chance to react as previously described. This would typically be the case if you were suddenly attacked from behind or from another direction. The key factor is whether or not you have the freedom to retreat or use the spray on the assailant. In this situation, your best chance is to draw the spray, assume the ready position with your hand on the spray. Take a deep breath, close your eyes and create a fog with the spray to surround you and your assailant. The only advantage you have in this scenario is that you know what's going to happen and the assailant doesn't. In essence you force him to breathe in the spray while you're not. If done successfully, the assailant will either release or relax his hold on you. The moment he does, break free from him, turn and spray in a controlled manner as you retreat and escape. If the assailant grabs and immobilizes your arms and you can't get the spray out, fight to free the hand closest to your Pepper Spray.
A special note: in an enclosed area, such as a car, the spray will fill the space instantly. You must get out of the car to be affected as little as possible. If the assailant has forced you into his car, do not use it to escape. If you have sprayed the inside of your own car, don't attempt to drive away in it unless absolutely necessary. You'll be affected by the residual spray and driving could be very hazardous. If this is your only means of escape, roll the driver's window down to ventilate your car. Drive to the nearest place of safety such as a restaurant, bar, convenience store, or even a residence with a light on; anywhere where there's going to be people.